The ‘ Artificial Intelligence (AI) enables machines to learn from experience, adapt to new inputs and perform activities similar to those of humans. Most of the examples of artificial intelligence we hear about today, from computers playing chess to self-driving cars, rely on deep learning and natural language processing. Using these technologies, then, computers can be trained to perform specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns in the data.
So here’s an in-depth look at artificial intelligence, its history and the possible scenarios it could open in the near future.
All about artificial intelligence
How does it work
The fields in which it is applied
History of artificial intelligence ( ↑ )
The term artificial intelligence was coined in 1956 , but only in recent decades has it become popular thanks to advanced algorithms and the increased computing power of machines. Early AI research in the 1950s explored basic topics, such as problem solving. In the 1960s, the United States Department of Defense became interested in this type of development and began training computers to mimic basic human reasoning. For example, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) completed major road mapping projects in the 1970s, and produced smart assistants in 2003 (long before Siri, Alexa, or Cortana were common names).
All of this paved the way for the automation and reasoning methods we find in computers today. While Hollywood movies and science fiction novels portray AI as human-like robots taking over the world, the current state of artificial intelligence isn’t as advanced and scary; on the contrary, AI is put at the service of man to provide specific benefits in each sector.
How it works ( ↑ )
Artificial intelligence works by combining large amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms, which allows software to automatically learn from patterns or features in the data.
Artificial intelligence is a broad field of study that includes many theories, methods and technologies, as well as the following main subfields:
The ‘ machine learning (or machine learning) automates the creation of analytical models. Use methods from neural networks, statistics, operations research, and physics to find hidden insights into the data without being explicitly programmed to know what to look at or what to conclude.
The neural network is a type of machine learning made up of interconnected units (such as neurons) that process information by responding to external inputs. The process takes multiple steps to find connections and derive meaning from undefined data.
L ‘ deep learning (or deep learning) uses enormous neural networks with many levels of processing units, taking advantage of advances in computing power and improved technical training to learn complex patterns in large amounts of data. Common applications include image and speech recognition.
The cognitive computing is a subfield of artificial intelligence that aims to natural interaction, similar to that of humans with machines. Using artificial intelligence and cognitive computing, the ultimate goal is for a machine to simulate human processes through the ability to interpret images and words and then speak coherently in response.
Machine vision (or computer vision) relies on pattern recognition and deep learning to recognize what’s in an image or video. When machines can process, analyze and understand what they ‘sell’, they are able to capture images or videos in real time and interpret their surroundings.
The ‘ natural language processing , or NLP (Natural Language Processing) is the ability of computers to analyze, understand and generate human language, including speech. The next stage is natural language interaction, which allows humans to communicate with computers using conversational, everyday language to perform tasks.
The fields in which it is applied ( ↑ )
Artificial intelligence can be applied in various sectors, greatly facilitating tasks for human workers. Just think of the field of health, where it can provide aids to doctors through the readings of diagnostic tests . In addition, artificial intelligence applied to healthcare could act as a life coach, reminding people to take pills, exercise and eat healthier.
As for retail, the AI offers personalized advice and discusses purchasing options with the consumer. It can also manage stocks and improve the interface of the sites, in the case of e-commerce.
In the banking sector it can be used to identify which transactions could be fraudulent and to automate intense data management activities, while in the productivity and large industries it can be applied to predict customer load and demand.
Last but certainly not least is the field of robotics: artificial intelligence will in fact be indispensable to move the automata of the future, which will provide assistance to the elderly and disabled and will be increasingly integrated into everyday life to carry out various activities.